AT • WORK
APRIL 15, 1937
A NEWS SHEET FOR, INDIANS
AND THE INDIAN SERVICE
FICE* OF- INDIAN -AFFAIR
WASHINGTON ^ P- Co
Due to the moving of the Department of the
Interior offices into the New Interior Building, and
due particularly to the moving of the machines upon
which "Indians At Work" is multilithed, there will he
some uncertainty as to the dates of the May issues.
Delay or even omission of one of them may be necessary.
INDJ AN S AT WORK
CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OF APRIL 15, 1937 .
Volume IV Number 17
Editorial John Collier 1
More About "False Reportings" * 6
Cover Design 6
New Yorker Is Awed And Shocked In The Fog Of A
Dust Bowl Storm , George Greenfield 8
Reorganization News , 13
Seneca Soundings Louis Balsam 14
Some Things The Indian Race Has Contributed
To World Culture 15
Great Lakes Delegation Visits Washington 22
Tongue River Representatives In Washington 22
Forum On The American Indian At Indianapolis .... Lawrence E. Lindley .... 23
Hopi Arts and Crafts Otto Lomavitu 24
Grand Portage Grace L. Nute 26
Can You See This Wind? 32
I.E.C.W. In Monument Valley, Navajo Agency Fred M. Goldsworthy .... 33
Fine Horses - Pride Of The Crows Robert Yellowtail 37
Fort Hall I.E.C.W. Undertakes Varied Program .... C. B. Garrett 40
New Study Of Navajo Situation Issued 43
Threat To Seneca Land Averted 46
J. P. Kinney Of I.E.C.W. Staff Writes History Of
Indian Land Tenure Allan G. Harper 47
Father Gagnieur, Worker For Half-Century Among
Chippewas , Dies 48
From I.E.C.W. Reports 49
INDI«^liiF : ll0RK
■ x , ."- ■ « ;'*"' -'
A W<z!\tis> £>W<£<z,t. Tor m'j^icms
VOLU/AL IV" 'AP&UL 15, 1937- ^NUM&LR. 17-
A member of the ,/ashington staff voices distress. He
fears that the uncertainties created in the Indian and Service
mind "by the attempts to destroy the Indian Reorganization Act
may result in a backset to the Indian life r>rogram.
And I share his concern, to this extent: that Indians
know how in past decades, generations, many times the government
has changed its policies — sometimes disastrously — without care-
ful consideration and without consulting the Indians. And Indians
know that many times in the past the government has made compacts
with them, has allowed them to make profound adjustments in their
lives to meet the terms of the compacts, and then cynically or
carelessly has abrogated the compacts (treaties or agreements).
Indians look on the Reorganization Act as the latest, most far-
reaching of the government's compacts, and naturally they fear a
repetition of past history.
Otherwise stated, Indians suffer from an inherited feeling
of insecurity which among a good many Indians almost amounts to an
"anxiety neurosis", so that the distress arising from such an inci-
dent as the attempted repeal of the Reorganization Act is greater
than would be the distress of white people if similarly threatened.
The following information .is set down to alleviate this
feeling of distress among some of the Indians.
The Indian Reorganization Act received fuller considera-
tion by Congress than any Indian legislation of this lifetime. In-
dians will remember that very detailed hearings were carried out in
both the Senate and the House, and that the President addressed Con-
gress twice upon the bill. Public opinion is well informed about
the Reorganization Act. No proposed repeal, or radical amendment,
of the Act could get to the floors of Congress without careful pre-
vious hearings before the Indian Committees of the House and Senate.
At these hearings, any onslaught against the Reorganiza-
tion Act would have to pass from generalities to particulars. The
discussion would have to deal with the actual language and actual
operations of the Act. Let me illustrate what would then taJce place.
One of the critics of the Act has charged that Indians
who have not adopted the Act have been discriminated against. The
facts produced at the hearings would show that actually the tribes
who have not adopted the Act have received more money than the
tribes which did adopt it.
One of the critics has stated that he wants Indians to
have the educational opportunities which whites now have. At the
hearings it would "be developed that the Reorganization Act has on-
ly one hearing upon this question, namely, that it authorizes a
quarter of a million dollars a year for educational loans for ad-
vanced training of Indians in business and professional and tech-
nical schools and colleges. For the rest, the hearings would de-
velop the fact that 50,328 of the 82,531 Indian children attending
school at the present time are attending white public schools; and
that those attending Indian schools frequently are receiving a more
practical , up-to-date training as viewed by white education than
most white children ever get.
Again, one of the critics has stated that the tribe which
first organized and first became a chartered corporation under the
.act, is dissatisfied, and that five hundred of its members, who
amount to about one-eixth of the tribe, have petitioned against the
Act. At the hearings, so far as the facts after careful inquiry in-
dicate, it would be developed that no such petition exists or has
been signed by five hundred members of the tribe in question.
Some critics of the Act talk about an alleged denial, in
the government's schools, of Christian ministration to the Indians.
At the hearings it would be developed that no such denial exists
but that, on the contrary, the government's Indian schools extend
facilities to ministers and missionaries which are denied in all
Other critics talk about Communism, and say that the
tribes organized under the Act are Soviet institutions. At the
hearings it would become evident that tribes organized under the
Act are merely clothed with some of the powers of ordinary munic-
ipal government in the United States and some of the powers of the
ordinary membership or business corporation in the United States;
and at such hearings it might become possible to show even to the
most benighted of such critics that a cattle association, a credit
union, or a consumers 1 cooperative organization, is not communistic
but is precisely the opposite thing from Communism.
In brief, at a hearing, if held, there would be a swift
and conclusive "debunking" of numerous statements being made against
the Reorganization Act.
If, in spite of such a showing, a repeal bill were re-
ported to either House, then the discussion would be transferred to
the floor, and there would be small chance indeed of a favorable
If by a miracle Congress should enact a repeal, the Pres-
ident's veto power remains.
The situation is not comparable to that which existed in
other times when disastrous changes of policy were carelessly
adopted or when treaties were torn up by Congress. In those in-
stances, the Executive branch of the government was in agreement
with Congress or was inactive or neutral« In the present case, the
Executive branch of the government stands on the side of the Indians
as, in the event of a vote, Congress also would prove to stand.
And in previous times, the public has been largely unin-
formed. In the present instance, as stated above, the public is
well informed and there is a widespread and an active public opin-
ion which would go into action, in the measure necessary, if a
real peril should prove to exist.
A final word to Indians and to Indian Service people both.
These are times when great and sudden changes take place in the
shape of public affairs all over the world. At such times, it is
perfectly proper, and necessary and wholesome, for all citizens to
be "on their tiptoes", and to be conscious of the necessity for
watchfulness, of thoughtfulness and of struggle. The condition of
the world _is a condition of profound insecurity, and of unpredictable
futures. Whether or not one's own immediate situation is insecure
and unpredictable, nevertheless he is a part of the world and must
partake of its pangs of insecurity.
All of us have to learn to live in such a world. We must
"tone ourselves up" to this cold climate and these howling winds.
Socrates said: "The unexamined life is not worth living."
We at this particular pass of world affairs are being enabled and
compelled to examine our lives, in a way that our fathers and grand-
fathers did not have to do — indeed, could not do. To me it seems
a very wholesome thing, that into Indian life, which is not apart
from but one with humanity at large, there should be driven this
necessity of watchf ulness , of preparedness for effort and for strug-
gle, and of the searching of foundations. It is a good thing for
the education and the upbuilding of the Indian race, and incident-
ally of the Indian Service,
Commissioner of Indian Affairs
MORE ABOUT "FALSE REPORTINGS 11
In the February 15 issue of "Indians At Work", an article
called "False Reportings" dealt with an earlier article published
by the Indian Rights Association in the leaflet called "Indian
In the March issue of "Indian Truth", the Indian Rights
Association made reply to the article "False Reportings."
To this reply, a response has been made, which is avail-
able to those interested, in mimeographed form. The rejoinder in
"Indian Truth" has not seemed to call for any modification in the
original statement about "False Reportings", and it is not believed
that the subject has an interest general enough to make it worth-
while to print the subsequent answer in "Indians At Work."
The cover design for this issue was drawn by Ruth Lalio,
student at the Zuni Day School, Zuni, New Mexico. The motif was
taken from a Zuni water jar.
LACUNA miikS CARRYING WATER
NEW YORKER IS AWED AND SHOCKED IN THE FOG OF A DUST BOWL STORM
Rides 200 Miles On Train Through A Blinding Murk That Chokes And Kill3 All
Animal And Plant Life, And Denudes And Ravages A Once Rich Land
Reprinted By Permission From New York Times
By G-eorge Greenfield
In Kansas, Aboard The Denver Special of the Union Pacific, March 7.
I am in the midst of a dust storm. The conductor tells me it is
the first bad dust storm of 1937 and ot>p of the worst he has seen in two years.
Running Tor Shelter In A South Dakota Dust Storm
Through the car window I can see telegraph poles, some twenty feet
from the roadbed. Beyond that fences line a road. The fences are approximately
100 feet from the tracks. Beyond that is a thick fog - black, impenetrable,
forbidding. We have passed through 200 miles of man-made fog.
Looking out of the window, you might think it merely a cloudy, stormy
day; that is, if you didn't know you were in a dust bowl. It is a cloudy day,
but a different kind of clouds. Not the clouds New Yorkers know.
I had read of dust storms, but they were vague in my consciousness.
Now I see one, and it is a terrible, an awesome thing.
They are clouds of dust - soil; soil blowing away from a ravaged and
denuded land. A land raped by greed for $2 wheat.
I have had only one thought in my trains as I sit on the train and
look out at this desert through which we have been passing for two hours. It
is a saddening, almost a heart-tearing thought. It is the thought that right
here, under my very eyes, I am seeing this country blowing away.
Can you, hack in your secure and comfortable homes, picture it? No.
You have to see it, feel it, sense it. Here, in what was once the richest
farm and stock land of the Middle West, I see the disintegration of that soil
which has fed us.
Let me tell about it.
I left Kansas City at 10:10 o'clock at night. The next morning,
near Ellis, Kansas, 303 miles from Kansas City, the country was bathed in
sun . . .
Darkening Over Barren Land
Then, about an hour later, I noticed the light was becoming dim.
It seemed as if the sky was darkening and I had the feeling that it was going
to rain or snow. The whistle of wind sounded through the cracks of the window,
By now we were in the vicinity of Oakley, Kansas. Suddenly I real-
ized that we were in a dust storm. In the dust bowl of Western Kansas. What
is a dust bowl? If it were not for a few gaunt, bare trees seen occasionally
in the distance, I would think this country a flat Sahara Desert, except that
the ground is hard and brown and not rolling and sandy white.
It is not a desert in the sense that you see only vast reaches of
sand, as in the Sahara. What makes you think of a desert is the lack of life.
The land looks dead. I have not seen more than one or two automobiles driv-
ing on the road that parallels the railroad track for a hundred miles or more.
I have seen human beings only in the bleak, deserted-appearing vil-
lages, consisting of a dozen or so shacks that we have passed or at which we
halted to pick up water. Houses empty, yards empty. I have not seen a single
child in these ghost-like, pathetic villages. The few persons I saw, looked
like a lost people living in a lost land.
Miles Of Lifeless Terrain
I do not exaggerate when I say that this flat land, this country
in which the soil is blowing away and piling up in mounds and filling your
eyes, your mouth and nose with grit that irritates the throat and lining of
your nostrils, I am not exaggerating when I say that it makes me feel I am
looking at a dead land.
I see death, for there is no life; for miles upon miles I have seen
no life, no human beings, no birds, no animals. Only dull brown land with
cracks showing; ground that looks like gray clay. Hills furrowed with
eroded gullies - you have seen pictures like that in ruins of lost civiliza-
Trees, once in a while. But their branches, their naked limbs, are
gray with dust. They look like ghosts of trees, shackled and strangled by
this serpent, flinging their naked arms skyward as if crying for rescue from
this encircling, choking thing...
Death Riding The Rails
Did I say a while back that all this reminded me of death? Let me
tell you what a fellow passenger, who did not want his name published, told
"Two trainmen died not so long ago as a result of passing through
these dust storms for two years," he said. "They got the dust in their lungs
dust pneumonia, they call it. Lungs couldn't function the way they should.
Got real pneumonia and died." ...
I saw one of the trainmen get off at a stop a while back when we
were in the midst of the thickest part of the storm. He had a silk handker-
chief tied around his mouth as he walked beside the tracks, When he returned
and the train got under way he cursed. He spat and made a wry face.
"Awful," he said, "awful."
When he goes out into the air at train stops and puts that handker-
chief around his head, he keeps moistening it with saliva. That helps him
to breathe. He also has a gadget like a gas mask. When the storms are real
bad (they all say today's is not as bad as the 1935 one - and Lord knows what
it is like when it's real bad) why, then he puts on his dust mask.
"I've been taking treatments that cost me $170," said the trainman.
"Dust gets into the intestines, and that ain't so good."
His face was drawn and worried. He looked out of the window at a
deserted village with an expression that I can't quite describe. He dreads
the trip through Western Kansas as though it were the plague.
Extermination Of Rabbits,
Death, did I say? I have been talking to people today who travel
up and down this route, asking this man his opinion, another his experiences.
"I counted twelve telegraph poles on a trip through here last year,
remarked one, solemnly, "and between those twelve poles saw not less than
forty Kansas jackrabbits stretched out on the ground, deader than mackerel.
Choked to death by dust. Why, these big jackrabbits - they were famous for
their size - have been killed by thousands."
He paused to pound his right fist into his left palm, then continued:
"I mean by thousandsl You don't see hardly any now. You don't see any wild
life out here, «cept maybe a few crows - and even those black bandits aren't
here like they used to be. No, sir. No robins, no sage hens, no song birds
and few animals of any kind. They're gone - gone. No place for 'em to live,
nothin' to eat."
I haven't seen one bird today. A few crows and one rabbit I did
Uprooting Of Buffalo Grass
We passed a lonely farm a few miles back where seven cattle were
grazing. They were the first cattle I had seen in several hours of riding.
"You see that buffalo grass?" said one of my companions in the parlor
car. "There's still a little of that grass left there and those cattle look
in pretty good shape. But that buffalo grass isn't here any more the way it
used to be. The wind and dust have torn it up by the roots and left the soil
as bare as your hand.
"Those few cattle used to be represented by vast herds so thick that
you couldn't count them." He shook his head. "Yes, sir, right in this spot
we're passing through they were as thick as flies. Now the stockmen are gone,
There was a puzzled, mystified look in his face. It is an expres-
sion I have seen on the faces of other people on the train. They can't under-
stand this outburst of Nature's wrath. I saw fear in their faces, as of im-
pending disaster ...
Waste Answers Scorners
Some of the passengers on the train pooh-pooh this dust storm talk.
They say it's not so bad as the papers make out. They say it's bad for business,
makes people afraid to invest in things out here and scares away people who
have been living here. I suspect strongly this is native pride and shrewd-
ness, coming to the defense of a threatened resource. Hope against hope.
They have no answer when I point out to the deserted-looking vil-
lages and the lifeless, utterly lifeless, land.
The windows in this train, all through the train, are sealed. It
would take a crowbar to open them. The trains are air-conditioned throughout.
But the thin, gray dust covers the sill where I sit and write, seep-
ing through sealed windows and the porter bustles from chair to chair with a
towel in his hand, cleaning the stuff from the windows and the sills. He takes
his broom and goes out on the platform and sweeps away a covering of sand;
sand that looks like Jones Beach sand, only thinner, finer, lifeless looking
Dust Storm In Stanton County, Kansas - 1934.
"I was in Oakley not long ago," said a thin, sallow-faced man, "when
a cloud of dust hung over the town and you could hardly see across the street.
1 Then it started to rain, and, brother, I'm telling you it rained mud, just
black mud. And then it turned to sleet and the ground was so slippery it was
as much as your life to walk out in it."
"Yeah," said another passenger, "I know a town in this part of the
country where they sent sixty-nine people to a hospital with dust inside 'em
and only nine came back. The rest are in the boneyard." His face wore a
mask of puzzlement...
Blown Away By Erosion
Soil erosion. Wind erosion. Those words are vague and nebulous to
many of you in New York. % did not know about them, either, when I left
New York. But I know now, for today I have seen, I have seen what waste,
greed, exploitation have done to our land. Unwise use, short-sighted farming.
Literally, our land is blowing away, piling up in mounds of sand
that make you think of the mounds of the Gobi Desert, Little holes in the
land, about two or three feet in circumference, dot the bare countryside;
places where the wind has struck and dug out the soil like so much feathery
sand. No vegetation left to hold the land intact, to repulse the wind.
It is a frightening experience. A thing no one would believe or
visualize unless he has gone through it. The last time I was out here, twenty
years ago, there were cattle and trees and birds and life.
I cannot help remember J. N. Darling's words at the conservation
conference in St. Louis last week, where a great army was organized to fight
these things that are wasting our grand country away.
Ding, a man who had the vision of all this years ago, but to whom
no one listened said:
"We must stop soil erosion. We must stop it because no government,
no matter whether it be Democratic, Republican, Communistic, or dictatorship,
can withstand the demands of hungry men who search for food in vain."
Today I have seen the cold hand of death on what was one of the
great breadbaskets of the nation.
REORG ANIZATIO N NEWS
March 3 Saginaw (Great Lakes Agency) 109
~~ Yes No
March 15 Pine Ridge 894 15?5
March 15 Rosebud 1041 g50
By Louis Balsam
Field Retire sentative - Office of Indian Affairs
From The Tops Of These Buildings One
Almost Can See Indian Land
a white man stood gazing
over the high stone par-
apet at the very top of
the Empire State Build-
ing in New York City. For
fifty miles in any direc-
tion he could see hills,
rivers, valleys, roads,
trees and "buildings in
stimulating panorama. Di-
rectly beneath him, 1,000
feet down, was the vast
intricate congestion of
humanity, streets, smoke,
structures, odors and
traffic that is New York
City. Nearly seven million human "beings, for the most part "civilized",
lived, loved and had their "being within a small radius of where he stood.
The white man looked down to where Thirty-fourth Street met Fifth
Avenue and it came to him vividly that that corner was a symbol; a symbol of
industry, art, finance, labor, capital, sophistication, pomp, prostitution,
kindliness, crime, justice, religion, indifference, tolerance, intolerance -
all conceivable forms of human expression, interest and endeavor. Here on
any given day, and even as he looked, hundreds of thousands of human beings
rubbed shoulders in an endless stream. Crowds flowed into and out of each
other. Tremendous masses of human beings, each one bent upon the fulfill-
ment of individual desires; millions of such individuals, millions of dollars
and millions of plans, schemes, achievements, worries, ambitions, fears, hopes,
all summed up in a name - New York City.
He pondered this city before him and realized the futility of try-
ing to sum it up in a phrase - yet he could not help being aware of certain
characteristics; its sophistication, its high-speed tempo and the outward
signs, certainly, of such power and magnificence as perhaps the world had not
before seen quite the like. "All these huge masses of people ... how much
can they mean to one another? What groups hold them endearingly together?"
Off to the north and west, far beyond the sixty and eighty-story
skyscrapers and beyond the roofs of vast tenement buildings housing 1,500
families in an individual unit, remote from complex traffic jams, he saw a
suggestion of green fields and of lakes. "Why just out there," he said,
half pointing, "on several reservations Indians are living! Senecas. In a
matter of hours I could be with them - away from all this - and still be in
the very heart of New York State ..."
During his first few days at various Seneca reservations at
Onondaga, Tonawanda, Tuscarora, Cattaraugus and Allegany, it was difficult
for him to believe that he really was among Indians. Here within about an
hour from the great city of Buffalo were over 4,000 Indian people. Unless
he deliberately looked into the faces of many of them, it was seldom possible
for him to tell the majority of these Indians from the many thousands of
white New Yorkers who lived everywhere about them. Certainly not by their
clothes could he describe them as Indians, since the overwhelming majority
dressed exactly as their white neighbors: the same overalls, shirts, work-
ing suits, hats, dresses; everything identical. Their homes, too, disappointed
this white man who was looking for a native, primitive culture.
These Senecas lived as did the white oeople about them who were in
similar circumstances: simple wooden frame dwellings, of two, three and
four rooms housed hundreds of them. Many hundreds lived in well-worn shacks,
patched and repatched with boards, with wood from orange crates and with tar
paper. Scores of homes had leaking roofs, crumbled steps, broken porches,
and all of these were exactly as similar homes of thousands of white neigh-
When the man
looked about for signs of
industry or of work which
would mark these oeople as
Indians, he at first found
none. Hundreds were mechan-
ics, machinists, laborers
and workers in the great
mills and industries at Buf-
falo, Rochester and Syracuse.
In proportion to their pop-
ulation, more of them had
retained their jobs than did
white people during the de-
pression, entirely because
of the excellence of the
work of the Indians who had
"Wolf Run" - Allegheny River
not only learned white men's techniques hut haa gone white men one better!
A very small number of Indians were making a living by farming. On these
reservations, as on others much further west, the visitor found a good deal
of leased land which the Indians had rented out to white farmers. A small
amount of this land was considered the best in the State of New York and
from it, Italian and other farmers were making a fat living whilst the In-
dian owners were barely "getting by."
As the white man talked with more and more of these Indian people,
he learned after a week or so that most of them were ambitious to build
themselves up to the standards of living of the surrounding whites. Large
numbers of Senecas had already intermarried and these said little or nothing
about being Indians. Others considered themselves whites, owned especially
fine homes and were treated as equals by white neighbors.
Automobiles were everywhere. Most of them were six to a dozen
years old. Many were driven with a lofty, almost noble, disregard of such
worldly considerations as traffic laws. It gave the white visitor a feeling
of being back in the west among horses, so ■Individually active and unpredic-
table were the movements of many of the Indian-driven cars he encountered on
reservations. Like horses, too, many of these cars showed no lights at night.
When he delved into statistics, the visitor saw that these Indians
had, from New York, the same average of public relief money per capita as
did their white neighbors. He remembered his history sufficiently to recall
that it was within his own lifetime that the Seneca peoples considered it
beneath their dignity and self-respect to ask charity of anyone. They took
care of their own poor and helpless. "Civilization and its blessings!" the
visitor said mockingly to himself. "White man's contribution to 'Lo, the
poor Indian! ' "
As he rode over miles of the finest roads in the State, right
through and across the various reservations, he realized again and again
that most of the white people' in the thousands of cars that used these same
roads daily, zoomed along probably without even imagining the hundreds and
thousands of Indians who lived on both sides of those highways: Seneca In-
dians, whose power and pride, whose land and assets, whose handicrafts,
self-sufficiency and basic philosophies of life, even when viewed in retro-
spect, remain one of the great glories of a great continent.
These Indians were Somebody once. Indians and proud to be Indians.
Today only a portion of the thousands who owned and roamed New York State,
remained and more and more they were becoming like white people and proud
of that too. "Well, all life is change," the white man told himself. "It
isn't life otherwise. If these Senecas have really lost their Indianship,
and if they are really becoming swallowed up in the white population, then
they are. We might as well look the facts right in the eye!"
He let his thoughts run along that channel: in another genera-
tion, perhaps, there might be no Indian problem in New York. In another
generation, people would believe less than they do now that there were any
Indians in New York State. Racial amalgamation, he recalled, seems like a
slow process, but once it is under way it isn't very long before its thor-
oughness seems startling.
Somehow the thought of these Senecas' disappearance troubled him
despite his attempt at objectivity and at facing facts. Were they really
disappearing? Were they really blending? He felt, sadly, what a pity it
was that what we call civilization should kill so much of the best that is
our heritage from a simpler and saner past. That night and in several
nights that followed he had his answer: an answer which to this day heart-
ens and delights him: The answer was that so far as human relations go,
what one sees on the surface is not necessarily the whole picture! The
answer was that what is told to one by those most able to talk , or by those
who have an axe to grind, or ambitions of their own, is not either the whole
truth, even though the tellers are sincere.
On that memorable night he was deeply privileged to have a glimpse
at the soul of a people; for where a people's joyous, creative expression is,
there their soul is, too. He was invited to ait in with a group of Senecas
who were called pagan: a powerfully large minority who while outwardly look-
The Mask-Makers' Corner*
•Photograph through courtesy of Rochester Museum, New York.
lng exactly like and living exactly like
the other mechanics, machinists, labor-
ers and farmers were still Indians in
the deepest and richest sense cf that
terra: an Indian oasis in the vastness
of surrounding white civilization!
Into a very ordinary cottage
he found his way. It was a two-room
dwelling and not a bit different from
hundreds of American cottages around
it. Once inside, however, he had the
feeling of quite definitely leaving
white America entirely behind him.
In the larger of the two
rooms almost everything had been cleared
away, leaving the floor bare. Almost
everything except, to his amazement and
delight, four examples of arts and
crafts as fine and as beautifully done
as any similar art work done by any
people anywhere! Upon one wall hung a
hand-carved wooden mask of superb pro-
portions and executed with a feeling
for life - and a creativeness any white
wood sculptor might feel proud of. The
mask had an aliveness of expression,
a certain sadness and wistfulness which
deeply moved the visitor. "Do you folks
do much of this work?" he asked. A dozen voices answered at once. For days
afterwards the white man kept asking to see more of these remarkable masks.
The more he saw, the more he marveled: marveled, too, at the vitality of
the Seneca Society of Faces built around the cultural significance of these
masks to help get rid of disease and dis-ease.
In one corner of the room was a "snow snake." This was a slim
shaft of highly polished wood about eight feet long, delicately and beauti-
fully wrought. Just as the masks were made for the joy of creative expres-
sion to be used in religious ceremonials, so were these snow snakes made
for the joy of doing it, but for winter sports.
On another wall was a pair of snowshoes* A careful examination
of these showed them to have admirably combined beauty and utility. Beneath
these was one of the "crooked mouth" masks, a thing of urgence and of life.
Done, in the name of Religion, for the pleasure of doing it. Art, indeed.
Her. Peter W. Doctor,
Pastor, Presbyterian Church,
Tonawanda Reservation In New York
He was exhilarated by seeing these expressions of Seneca life. He
lookBd upon the men on the crowded benches, now, with heightened interest.
Some of them were carrying small rattles about six inches long, the handles
of which were made of wood about a quarter of an inch thick and the rattle
of which was made of cow's horn, scraped and polished. Other men were hold-
ing small water-drums about six inches in diameter.
With these and with no other musical instruments, the men began to
produce music and rhythm so powerful, so dynamic, so cosmic, as to make the
white guest grip his hands in delight and expectation. Starting with one
man who began a quiet rhythmic chant, accompanied by an equally rhythmic tap-
ping of both his feet which singing and tapping increased in volume, in tempo
and in emotional force it was a matter of seconds before everyone of the
twenty-odd Indians in that room had joined him. The group now began to sing
with rising tones, with increasing tempo, with increasing rhythm, with feet
moving faster and faster, singing in rich harmony with rattles sounding and
with small drums echoing.
In no time at all, every Indian present had succeeded in singing
himself and rhythming himself completely out of his workaday ordinary world.
Completely and Deautifully. Eyes closed, spirits released and soaring, these
Indians were now at one with Deeps of Life, with the very essence of Creativ-
ity, with Religion in its noblest sense. By their own efforts, out of the
dynamic reaches of their own revered and glorious past, out of centuries
only apparently gone, came this vital
poignant strength: Strength to face
life again tomorrow and other tomorrows
to the end of time: Strength very
quietly, despite surface appearance,
desrcite propaganda, to be Indians even
in an overwhelmingly non-Indian world!
As he sat in that room which
was once (could it have been a thousand
years ago when he entered?) a very
ordinary place, he knew that it was a
little room no longer, nor even a def-
inite place in a definite locality!
The songs from the Deeps of Long Ago,
the rhythms and the spiritual intensi-
ties which his Indian hosts had evolved
by now, had possessed this white man
too; had released in him impulses, per-
haps aeons old, who knows? There he
was, as were those Indians, in an Im-
mensity, a beautiful Immensity and into
his being, too, flowed Strength, Beauty,
Power, Tolerance, Understanding and
that Peace which passeth all under-
standing. Basket Weaving - Allegany
Reservation In New York
From out of the second room came
several Seneca women who, seeing that the
men had risen and had begun to dance in
a circle, joined that dance in a rhythmic
pattern of their own. In and out of the
men's circle moved these women, lithe,
sinuous, graceful; beautiful expressions
of poetry and motion - yes, and of life,
birth, dawns, dreams and of Essence of
all that religion can be and sometimes is.
For here was worshin as reverent and as
spiritual as anything in any holy place.
Worship? Yes, but more than
that, too. Here was a heart-warming,
social solidarity. Here was a lovable
group expression. Here were human beings
who had kept alive the sources of individ-
uality, entirely because they had kept
their group interests and their group
responsibilities alive'. Here were humans
who keenly realized an age-old diction:
"No man liveth by himself alone!" They,
encouragingly enough, sensed that in di-
rect proportion to participation in the
life of his group, does a person live most keenly, most deeply; does he really
live at alii
Seneca Children Play At
Cooking Corn Soup
It was midnight now. Farewells all around. The white man felt
moved to say something: "Thank youi For one of the most moving and deepest
experiences of my life. Don't ever lose the spirit of this evening. Pass
it mi to these young people here. Cherish this togetherness above all else
for it ties you to what is beautiful and fine in the past and what is life-
saving. It ties you to all that may come to you as Indians."
As he walked to his hotel under wintry stars, a happy smile suf-
fused him. It was not really visible, but something quiet, warm and inner;
a glow which was to be with him long afterwards. A phrase he had heard so
many times since his arrival at the reservation insisted upon his attention:
"The Senecas are done as Indians." He thought back to what had just happened,
and he knew better. Done? No. Not ever. Certainly not so long as such
meetings were possible: gatherings which so vitally released wells of life
from all the centuries back of these Seneca people from the Dawn of Time
Amalgamation would go on, no doubt but not annihilation] These
Senecas clearly needed help just as white men needed it and here New York
State was doing a fine work and doing it with increasing effectiveness, ex-
pressing in some measure at least, an attempt on the part of decent white
people to make up for centuries of white man's dishonor and dishonesty to-
ward Indians. He was glad that people like Dr. David Adie, keen, under-
standing and sympathetically scientific, were on the job! He remembered the
effective achievements of Harry Hirsch and thought happily of the years of
careful, thorough cooperative work of John Brennan; of the fine humanity of
Helen Wayne, all of the New York State staff.
Amalgamation or no amalgamation, the Senecas were still vital as
Indians. This was tremendously encouraging to the visitor who cherished in-
dividual racial expression, especially native racial expression as some-
thing particularly precious. Here was a challenge, too! In a warm poignant
mood where thankfulness and exaltation mingled with determination, he walked
into the Seneca night.
, m m mm * * * * * * * *
GREAT LAKES DELEGATION VISITS WASHINGTON
A delegation from the Great Lakes Agency in Ashland, Wisconsin,
has been in the Washington Office on Reorganization, claims and other mat-
ters. Members of the delegation were:
Frank G. Smart and William Goslin from the Bad River Reservation
in Odanah, Wisconsin; Frank Setter and John Kingfisher from the Lac Courte
Oreilles Reservation in Reserve, Wisconsin; George W. Brown and Thomas L.
St. Germaine from the Lac du Flambeau Reservation in Lac du Flambeau, Wis-
consin; John Thomas and Charles Cardinal from the L'Anse Reservation in
L'Anse, Michigan; Mike J. Gordon from Red Cliff Reservation in Bayfield,
Wisconsin; Herman E. Cameron from Bay Mills Mission Reserve in Brimley,
Michigan; Henry Ritchie from the Wisconsin Potawatomies, Crandon, Wisconsin;
Frank Eli from the Wisconsin Potawatomies in Harris-Wilson, Michigan; and
John Lonestar from the St. Croix Band in Shell Lake, Wisconsin.
TONGUE RIVER REPRESENTATIVES IN WASHINGTON
The Tongue River delegation which visited Washington consisted of
John Stands In Timber, John Black Wolf and Eugene Fisher. They took up
various matters with the Washington Office Staff.
■ F owct
Haze Cbilll fifjxf
hii! nut !
I C O c c
[ O O O
/i in/ 1.'. iiniii'.sTii /mi i;/ /ni'.itii /I ii iu/i.',
i til 1./ i'H /i,i»/( a
LONG STAPLE COTTON
rvx vaiMSce -at srt tt ne-
ar the W7EJ cf xmnctiu
e UM OK E
SOME THINGS THE INDIAN RACE HAS CONTRIBUTED TO WORLD CULTURE
Domestic animals, some important agricultural plants and a few of the
ideas from Indian sources which have been adopted by other races. A unit done
by the pupils in a social studies class at Santa Fe Indian School in New Mexico.
Photograph by T. Harmon Parkhurst
FORUM ON THE AMERICAN INDIAN AT INDIANAPOLIS
By Lawrence E. Lindley
The Forum on the American Indian as a special group associated with
the National Conference of Social Work will have three meetings during the
National Conference at Indianapolis.
The Forum was organized at the National Conference last year to con-
tinue the progress of the Committee on the American Indian of the National
Conference of the past eight years.
The meetings scheduled for this year are as follows:
Thursday, May 27, 2:00 - 3;30 p. m . General topic, "Indian Eco-
nomic Development." Walter V. Woehlke of the Indian Service, who has also
worked with the Soil Conservation Service, "will speak on "Soil Conservation
and Human Needs." The discussion will be opened by C. C. Brooks, formerly of
the faculty of the Colorado College of Agriculture and now Superintendent of
the Navajo Methodist School at Farmington, New Mexico.
Thursday, May 27, 7:00 p. m . At this dinner meeting the Indians
in attendance at the Conference will give short talks about their work.
This is a custom which has been followed for several years.
Friday, May 28, 3:00 - 4:30 p. m . This meeting will be a panel dis-
cussion on the general subject of "Native Leadership." The opportunities for
training and employment of Indian young people, follow-up work after place-
ment and the needs for the future will be considered. Of those invited to be
a part of the panel the following have accepted: Mrs. Ruth Muskrat Bronson,
Office of Indian Affairs; Miss Bertha M. Eckert, National Y. W. C. A. Secre-
tary for Indian Workj Miss Fay G. Webb, Employment Department, Oklahoma City
T. W. C. A.; and Dr. J. C. McCaskill, Assistant Director of Indian Education,
Washington, D. C
It is planned to allow time for questions and general discussions
at all sessions.
On the program of the Case Work Section of the National Conference,
May 27, 11:00 - 12:30, Dr. H. Scudder Mekeel of the Indian Office will speak
on "Case Work with American Indians."
The work of the Forum on the American Indian is in charge of an
Executive Committee of twenty in addition to the officers, who are Lawrence
E. Lindley, Indian Rights Association, chairman; Mrs. Henry Roe Cloud, vice-
chairman, and Father J. B. Tennelly, Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions,
HOP I ARTS AMD CEAFTS
By Otto Lomavitu, Chairman, Hopi Tribal Council
The Hopi constitu-
tion and by-laws were signed
by the Secretary of the Inte-
rior December 18, 1936. Under
it a tribal council represent-
ing all the Honi villages was
formed in January. Our con-
stitution gives as one of the
powers of the council, the
right "to protect the arts,
crafts, traditions and cere-
monies of the Hopi Indians."
In this clause there is opened
to the Hop is a way to future
well-being if it is grasped
and rightly made use of.
The Hopi people are
like a nation surrounded by
other nationalities foreign
Hopi Pottery By Nampeyo to them ~ foreign in govern-
ment, custom, religion and
language as well as in arts and crafts. Now our precious inheritance is pro-
tected by the Indian Reorganization Act; this gives us confidence.
We should make it our aim to bring into harmony and unity the best
elements in our civilization and those of our neighbors.
Even with our limited resources, I believe it is possible for our
Hopi people to compete with other races of men. And are not our arts and
crafts, which are an asset peculiar to us Hopis, a potential element in our
progress? It seems to me that our place in the race of life will depend on
our ability to improve and to perpetuate our resources, one of which is our
craft inheritance. There is ready market for our manufactures, but because
of the inferior quality of some of our work, its disposal at good prices is
difficult. These exports can be expanded through improvement of our wares.
We have a high school at Kyaqotsmovi (Lower Oraibi) for general
training; there something of both Hopi and European civilizations is taught.
We can learn the arts and crafts and the techniques of other groups as well
as our own and improve our products without destroying their individuality.
We have our crafts materials here at hand. Our people are homogeneous, re-
ligious and intensely patriotic. We must take stock of our assets and move
HAMPEYO - FAMOUS HOP I POTTEE
Photo .By Jj'rasneTS , Pomona, California
By Grace Lee Nute - Curator of Manuscripts
Minnesota Historical Society
W& J3J sP*HH
Grand Portage As It Is Today
The tourist who motors today along Minnesota's North Shore Drive
on Lake Suoerior between hills on one side and an aormrent ocean on the
other comes eventually to a terminus at Grand Portage. It is a sleeny Indian
village climbing the gentle, low^r slopes of Mount Rose. Today its beautiful
setting attracts the wayfarer: Mount Rose behind the village, Mount Joseph-
ine shutting it off from the east beyond the bay, Grand Portage Island guard-
ing its entrance from the storms of the lake and Hat Point jutting far into
the waters of Gitchee Gooraee. Forests, hills, water, good fishing, Indians,
peace and the songs of birds that are rarely heard south of the border -
these are some of Grand Portage 1 s assets today.
But let us go back in history, apnroximately a hundred and fifty
years. Then Grand Portage was an important spot on the map of North America.
St. Paul, Chicago and St. Louis were not to be found on it, but Grand Portage
was there, clearly marked. Why was Grand Portage so important in 1790 and
almost forgotten in 1937?
The Great Carrying Place
Its very name suggests the answer. The French-Canadian fur traders
named it le grand portage - the great carrying place for canoes - and it meant
to them the longest portage "but one on their usual route from Montreal to the
Rockies, as well as the spot where canoe travel changed. Up to this point
large canoes could travel, carrying immense loads of trade goods and voyageurs
from Montreal by way of the Ottawa River and the Great Lakes. Beyond Grand
Portage, after eight long miles of overland "carrying" around the rapids, oth-
er types of canoes, food, dress and travel methods were employed. Naturally,
therefore, a big depot, or fort, grew up on the lake end of the portage. It
took its name just as naturally and became Grand Portage.
The exact date of its establishment is not known. In 1750 the first
trading licenses were made out to "le grand portage", although the great
French explorer, La Verendrye, had used the portage many years before. The
region was still in 1750 a part of New France and the licenses were French
ones. By 1767, when Jonathan Carver, a Colonial explorer, visited Grand
Portage, the French had lost Canada and the traders to the region were British
with British licenses. Still there was no trading post - at least Carver
makes no reference to one.
A Great Trading Depot Arises In T h e Wilderness
Sometime between Carver's visit and the year 1793 a large depot was
built at Grand Portage. The owners were the partners of the Great Northwest
Company which had been forming in the period of the American war of independ-
ence. The company had headquarters at Montreal but unlike their great rivals,
the Hudson's Bay Company, they had no governor or other definite executive
agent. One or more of the partners, however, resided at Grand Portage and
managed its trade and personnel as a governor would have done. A smaller
establishment, Fort Charlotte, was built at the Pigeon River end of the long
portage and its executive officer in 1793 was actually called "Governor" Ross,
because, it was said, he had held his position for so long.
Montreal To Grand Portage - Eighteen Hundred Miles By Canoe
Eighteen Hundred Miles By Canoe
This fort at Grand Portage was the end of the annual canoe journey
of one type of voyageurs, "the pork eaters", and the beginning of the hardships
of another, "the winterers." The pork eaters were the greenhorns of the fur
trade - the men who had never "been "beyond Grand Portage. They left Montreal
in the late spring in great birch hark canoes that rode deep in the water,
so heavily were they laden with "blankets, guns and other trade goods. Ten
to fourteen men were required to paddle such a craft. The canoes passed up
the Ottawa River and one of its western "branches, through Lake Nipissing,
across Georgian Bay and were portaged around Sault Ste. Marie.
By July they might have "been espied from the air, hugging the Rocky
north shore of Lake Superior as they approached Grand Portage. Before Hat
Point was turned these voyageurs must prepare for the grand flourish with
which every canoe was expected to enter the "bay and approach the fort. On
some rocky point the men doffed their workaday clothes and donned the color-
ful dress of voyageurs. Most noticeable in that garb was the bright sash
that encircled the waist several times and was knotted on one side so as to
fall in long fringes well toward the knees. If the weather was cold, as it
usually was in the early northern summer, the sash was tied outside the
great capote , whose hood was a boon when clouds of mosquitoes attacked the
hard working paddlers or when snow squalls made them shiver. Bathed, shaven
and tricked out in holiday dress, the voyageurs entered their canoes once
more and came up the bay swinging red-bladed paddles, a stroke every second,
and chanting one of their canoe songs: "A la claire fontaine", or "En roulant",
or "La belle Rose", or any other of their extensive repertoire.
Thus with song and acclaim a whole brigade of canoes would sweep
up the bay and deposit their men and goods. As canoe after canoe arrived
from the lake side of the fort, bronzed, lithe figures topped with Nor 1 westers 1
plumes might descend from the other side. These were the hivernants , the
winterers who had passed at least one season in the great spaces of the fur
trade beyond Grand Portage and were now returning with their furs to get more
trade goods for another season. Only Nor 'westers might wear plumes.
The Peak Of The Year
So Grand Portage in early summer was full of gay French chatter as
news from Montreal was exchanged for the gossip of forts on scores of western
streams in forests and prairies stretching out toward the Pacific Ocean. Over
a thousand men were congregated. The pork eaters slept in the camp outside
the stockade under overturned canoes as they were accustomed to do en route.
The Nor 'westers, however, set up tents of varying size, pitched so that the
creek separated them here as elsewhere from the pork eaters. The clerks and
partners who had also arrived from east and west in the brigades were given
hospitality in the fort proper. A convivial air -pervaded the whole establish-
ment. Dances were frequent in the evenings where partners were Indian women
or half-blood daughters of earlier voyageurs and traders. Feasts, where even
milk aJid butter from the fort's herd were served, tickled the t>alates of men
who had often faced starvation during the preceding winter in isolated posts
and who had lived for twelve months on what the wilderness could provide.
There was strong drink, talk, arguments, fights.
But there was also work to he done. Canoes must be mended for the
homeward journey; furs must be baled in the great press and tied up in ninety-
pound parcels; the long Montreal canoes must be exchanged for smaller, north
canoes for the men going into the interior; and, finally, the goods and canoes
for the interior must be carried over the long portage and started on their
western journeys. Six livres in currency was paid for every piece carried
over the portage.
Meanwhile serious business occupied clerks and partners within the
great hall. The annual meeting was held. Assignments of territories, jobs
and assistants were made and policies were considered or discarded.
A few years later, about 1797, the X Y Company also established a
fort at Grand Portage, about a quarter of a mile to the east of the North-
west Company's post and beyond the camp of the pork eaters. It, too, was
stockaded and built on much the same plan as the older establishment, though
on a smaller scale.
Famous traders and explorers who are known to have visited the
Grand Portage fort include Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Peter Pond, Count Paolo
Andreani, David Thompson and Dr. John McLoughlin.
The Great Trading Place Declines
Grand Portage's glory was not for long. About 1800 it was learned
that the post lay within the boundaries of the United States. The Northwest
and X Y Companies combined in 1804. Between 1801 and 1804 a new post, Fort
William, known to be within Canadian territory to the northeast of the old
site, was substituted for Grand Portage. Less than twenty years later hardly
a vestige could be seen of the old buildings and stockades at Grand Portage,
as David Thompson found when he revisited the scene of his earlier activities
in 1822. So quickly does a wilderness obliterate man's vaunted improvements.
Only in 1936 when picks and spades had opened up the site again was it cer-
tain just where lines of pickets had run, where gates had been and how the
general outline of the Northwest Company's post had been established. The
portage path was less difficult to locate, for it had been so worn down by
thousands of toiling voyageur feet that it is obvious even today.
Indians, however, continued to live in or near the vicinity of the
old portage; occasional canoe parties passed over it; the international
boundary was run close to it in 1822 and 1823; Lieutenant Bayfield visited
it and mapped the bay in 1823 and 1825; and American traders st»ent a winter
now and again in its vicinity, despite an agreement to the contrary between
the American Fur Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, in effect from 1833
to 1847. A more legitimate activity of the American Fur Company was its
fishing venture at Grand Portage in the late thirties, part of the grandiose
scheme for making money from Lake Superior's •unexcelled fish. Several build-
ings were established and. for a few years an ex-trader, Pierre Cote, made the
forests resound to the hammers of his coopers and the songs of his net-makers.
But the effects of the panic of 1837 reached even to this isolated spot and
stilled the hammers and rotted the nets.
Missionaries Leave Valuable Records
Meanwhile the missionary had arrived, as the normal course of events
on an American frontier would lead one to anticipate. The fur traders, fish-
ermen and missionaries were seldom far apart in the occupation of an American
frontier. The earliest known missionary at Grand Portage was a French-Cana-
dian priest, Father Antoine Tabeau, who was conducting a mission at Fort Wil-
liam in the summer of 1818. From thence he, with one of the McGillivrays of
the Northwest Company, made a short visit "to the old Grand Portage, sixteen
leagues from here on Lake Superior." He gives no description of his trip nor
of what he saw there.
One of the "saltiest" of the whole clan of missionaries did the
pioneer work at Grand Portage. Franz Pierz, known for his horticultural ex-
periments of many years' standing in his native Austria, left his gardens and
orchards in 1835 to answer to the Macedonian call of his countryman, the
Reverend Friedrich Baraga, and went to join the latter in his mission field
in the wilds of the Lake Michigan region. Thence Father Pierz went to Lake
Superior and in 1835 was building a mission establishment at Grand Portage.
How Grand Portage appeared to a cultivated European in 1335 may be gathered
from the following extract from Father Pierz' s letter written from his sta-
tion there on December 3, 1838:
"Grand Portage, my present mission post, is the most beautiful and,
since earliest times, the most famous spot on the north shore of Lake Superior.
It has a good harbor for landing and good fishing. The soil is well adapted
to farming, but thus far has not been used for that purpose. I have made a
beginning of agriculture by laying out a beautiful kitchen garden, a large
cultivated field and a little nursery planted with fruit seeds from Carniola.
... My house for the present is a small cabin of huge unhewn logs, chinked
on the outside with mud plaster and whitewashed on the inside with white
earth. It is provided with windows, and a stone fireplace ... My church is
made of cedar bark, thirty feet wide and forty feet long and displays real
Pierz was just feeling the pleasure of success among his flock where
he also had a promising school, when orders to return to his erstwhile post
came to dishearten both him and the natives. After his departure, late in
1839, there was a period of about six years when most of the mission work was
itinerant, the triad of Slovenian priests, Friedrich Baraga, Otto Skolla and
and Franz Pierz, visiting the post and staying as long as possible. In 1842
Pierz was back long enough to start a mission on Pigeon River, where he also
started an orchard, planted gardens and kept stock and poultry. On September
1, 1846, Father Skolla described the place thus:
"Grand Portage is on the bay of Lake Superior. The position of
this place is very pleasant, the ground fruitful and level, although sur-
rounded by rather high mountains. A great deal of black slate is found here
and in many places a sort of white earth which was used for filling the
crevices between the logs while there were houses here. At present there
are no houses, only poor Indian huts. The number of savages is about eighty,
including children. They live very meagerly ... Six miles from Grand Portage
is Pigeon River, a very wild spot between two thick forests ... I visited that
place also. Here several years ago the honorable Mr. Pierz had begun a
church which is still without a roof ... Besides the church ... Mr. Pierz had
built a small house of one room and another building where church supplies
were kept. The soil is much better and more productive here than in Grand
Eastern Portion Of Pigeon Point
Showing Susie Islands
From July, 1848, until the summer of 1849 the Pigeon River Mission
was in charge of the Jesuits under Father Pierre Chone, Father Nicolas
Fremiot and Brother de Pooter. A cabin was built, a school was maintained
and divine services were held. After 1849 and till at least 1864 Grand Portage
was visited by missionaries from Fort William. About 1855 a Catholic School
was opened under Eugene Benoit and shortly the government built a schoolhouse.
The new school was maintained by the government because of the
fact that an Indian reservation had been established at Grand Portage after
the United States had purchased the triangle north of Lake Superior from the
Chippewa in 1854. Late in the nineteenth century this reservation was broken
Site Of Old Post Excavated
Great interest has developed of recent years in the possible re-
construction of the old post and steps have already been taken by the Indian
Service and the Minnesota Historical Society with Federal Government aid to
lay a firm foundation for reconstruction through adequate excavation under
the direction of competent archaeologists. The story of those excavations
will be told later.*
* An article by Ralph D. Brown, of the Minnesota Historical Society, on the
excavation of the old post at Grand Portage, will follow in an early issue.
CAN YOU SEE THIS WIND?
V-" : \ ■■■■■:
Pine Ridge Agency, South Dakota
"The wind up on top of Eagles' Nest Butte would flap a log chain,"
said Vance Tribbett, in charge of building a lookout tower there for "spotting"
"We don't believe it," said, or implied, his coworkers. "Look at
these then," said Mr. Tribbett, producing the pictures in the center and
right-hand side of this page.
The picture on the left shows a shovel-ful of dirt leaving Vincent
Bad Wound's shovel in the work on the lookout tower.
I.E.O.W . IN MONUMENT VALLEY , NAVAJO AGENCY , ARIZONA
By Fred M. Goldsworthy, Trail Locator
Stock Water Reservoir With Protecting Fence
Par in the north of Arizona and extending into Utah, one hundred
and sixty miles from a railroad and nearly as far from a highway, is Monument
Valley, the most remote and inaccessible large region in the United States.
This area, comprising 1,451,000 acres, or 2270 square miles, has but one tel-
ephone line and two secondary roads - those from Tuba City to Shiprock and
from Gallup to Bluff, Utah. The population of 1600 Indians - 220 families -
is concentrated in two centers - Kayenta and Dennehotso, at which centers
the Government has established day schools.
Water Development Of Prime Importance
development is of prime importance. During the early part of the winter,
Emergency Conservation Work on the Navajo was engaged in developing the
and November, Emergency Conservation Work has been engaged in developing the
region for more profitable utilization of the range resources. The most im-
portant type of work in this area comes under the classification of water
development. Part of the area is excellent grazing land, but due to the fact
that there is not sufficient water for stock, it is little used. On the oth-
er hand, grazing land with water developments previously completed tends to
become overgrazed. It is thought that with this additional water, new land
will be opened for stock.
Three windmill installations had been completed by the end of the
year, two with water troughs. The third windmill installation included a
fifty- thousand gallon steel rim storage tank. It is within 15 miles of Kayenta
near the Chilchinbeto road, in a flat rolling country, which promises to he
excellent grazing land. This work is permanent and will be a benefit to the
Navajos of this region.
Truck And Stock Trails Have Been Built
About twenty-five miles of truck trail have been reworked. In one.
case a new six-mile stretch was made in order to avoid crossing a wash five
times. The total length was cut nearly a mile in this short distance. On
the road from Kayenta towards Utah many sharp curves have been removed and
sandy stretches have been, to a large extent, removed by this additional work.
Many small wooden culverts were installed along this trail. Although the cul-
verts took a great deal of time to build and place, they help to make the
road more secure during rainy weather. A more satisfactory road has thus
been made. Repairing of roads over which there is much traffic is a definite
saving - especially to equipment.
Some stock trails have been built to enable stock to reach water.
In one particular case the spring and troughs had been so located that stock
from down the valley could water easily, but any stock coming from up the val-
ley were confronted by a cliff, a death-trap, before they could reach the wa-
ter. A stock trail has now been made so. that the stock can easily get to the
water which is so near. Other stock trails open more grazing land for the
stock. This tjroe of work is appreciated by the Indians because they can see
the improvement, the change and the advantage- of the new over the old.
Treacherous Laguna Wash Bridged
One of the most beneficial projects completed in this region is the
timber bent bridge over the Laguna Wash, one mile north of Kayenta. This
wash has been a source of constant worry to travelers and traders as well as
to the Indians. The approaches to the old rock crossing were extremely steep
and the crossing itself was mean even in fair weather. After a rain, none
attempted to cross but would wait, per-
haps one or two days, for the wash to
lower, in order to cross safely. Some
few adventurous travelers in the past
have attempted a crossing during high
water. Practically without exception
they have been rewarded by the loss of
car or wagon. Squire Mangum, former
stockman in this district, was among
those losing a car and just before the
bridge was completed, a Navajo saw his
wagon float downstream while he strug-
gled to the bank with a few broken ribs
North Bank In Rock Project 104-8-10
The site for the bridge was chosen in September and work began on
the tenth of October. Thirty days later the bridge was completed. The
bridge is of U. S. Indian Service Timber Bent design. It has four twenty-
foot spans, making the total length eighty feet. Much difficulty was en-
countered in pouring concrete foundations as there were six or seven feet
of quicksand above the rock bottom. Sheet piling was driven, quicksand ex-
cavated, holes drilled in the rock bottom, dowel pins set and concrete poured
in each of the three large foundations. This was the hardest part of the
work and when completed the bridge progressed rapidly.
At first the Indians had some trouble in understanding the new
tools and the new ways of doing things, but as time went on they began to
see the main object of all the preliminaries. Some were inclined to be
doubtful as to the length of time the bridge would withstand the flood waters
of the Laguna Wash, but as they saw the rough heavy timbers and careful work-
manship going into the bridge, they gradually changed their views. Now, those
who worked on the bridge do not hesitate to make the fact known and they seem
to feel, and rightly, that they have contributed something for the good of
Kayenta and the nearby country.
The approaches presented quite a problem. On the south side, nearly
two thousand cubic yards of earth were moved to make an easy grade from the
bridge. On the north side some two hundred and thirty cubic yards of rock
were removed. Several cases of dynamite were used to accomplish this. This
bridge as it now stands is a goodly sight. The traffic over it is amazingly
heavy for this region.
The New Bridge Over Laguna Wash Will Help to
Prevent Quicksand Accidpnts Like This.
FINE HORSES - PRIDE OF THE CROWS
As Told By Superintendent Robert Yellowtail, Crow Agency, Montana
Ready For The Cattle Round-Up
The Crow Indians of Montana, from early days, were noted for their
fine horses and expert horsemanship. Early observers, such as Maximilian,
Lewis and Clark and George Catlin, have all commented in their memoirs uoon
this phase of Crow life and history.
The original Crow horses came, of course, from the descendants of
the horses brought by the Spanish to the Southwest. The Crows added to their
stock in frontier days by capturing horses from the. Sioux and other tribes,
who in turn raided the herds of Federal military encampments. From the of-
ficers' mounts they obtained some of the best thoroughbred strains from the
In the pre-reservation days the Crows' Indian neighbors - the Bloods
and Blackfeet on the North, the Sioux and Cheyennes on the East and the Sho-
shones, Bannocks and Flatheads to the Southwest, Northwest and West - oaid
them the compliment of making periodic raids for the superior Crow horses.
Their particular objectives were the spectacular ointo ponies and the fast
buffalo-chase horses in which the Crows took particular pride. These were
usually kept herded close to camp or picketed at night to the teoee poles;
especially valuable and cherished horses, in fact, were tied to the owner's
leg at night for safekeeping.
Today Superintendent Yellowtail and the Agency staff are stressing
the continued development of fine horses for the Crow people - not only fine
horses but those breeds best suited to the Crow country and its needs.
At the present time there are at the Crow Agency six highly-bred
registered stallions. Two are racing stallions, one of which once ran second
in the Kentucky Derby. There is also a fine registered Morgan stallion,
heading a herd of 36 registered Morgan mares, individually owned by various
Crow Indians. Crossing the Morgan horse, which is heavily-muscled, powerful
and with a gentle disposition, with the native western mares makes for a
superb cow-pony. "Thoroughbreds are not the best for riding herd," said
Superintendent Yellowtail. "They are hot-tempered and once they get heated
up there's no stopping them; they want to go until they drop. For a good
cow-pony you want a horse that is sensible and tough, quick on his feet and
With a view to improving the reservation's draft animals, two
Belgian stallions of a beautiful strawberry-roan color and a fine Shire
stallion - all of them blue-ribbon horses in their class and breed - were
purchased in Canada. In addition to these stallions, 40 head of high-grade
Percheron mares, many of which are purebreds, were purchased last summer by
the superintendent and resold to the Crows under the reimbursable plan.
In 1920, a tribal fund of $50,000 was set aside by the Crows as
the capital stock of a tribal bank. This fund has proven invaluable - not
only for the purchase of live stock, but for farming implements, home build-
ing materials and countless other needs. All of the animals told about here
were paid for from this revolving loan fund. The stallions described above
have cost the Crows, according to Superintendent Yellowtail, not over 44 cents
per capita. With the fine breeding stock they now possess and supported by
their reimbursable fund, Crow horses, says Superintendent Yellowtail, are
going to make horse history in Montana.
Something of the Crows* feeling for horses was expressed by one
of the Crow delegates who was in Washington not long ago.
"Pine horses meant everything to us Crows - they still do," he
said. "It was like this: you wanted good horses for yourself, and not only
that, you wanted them for your relatives too, because you want your relatives
to have things as nice as you do. And to get good horses, you used to steal
them from other tribes or from the whites. I guess the Crows were about the
best horse-choosers and stealers in that part of the country; at least we
think we were. It wasn't the same as stealing is now, you understand; it
was an honorable thing to do - it was like war. We don't steal horses any-
more, but we sure still like them. We Crows like to feel we are riding the
best and that all our relatives and friends are riding the best too. That
feeling goes even for automobiles. But a beautiful horse is the best."
(Photograph on page 37 by G. Buckner.)
FORT HALL EMERGENCY CONSERVATION WORK UNDERTAKES VARIED PROGRAM
By C. B. Garrett, Project Manager
E.C.W. accomplishments at Fort Hall, Idaho, include:
Construction of guard stations , which will he used in range con-
Three overnight log cabins . Indians who camp while getting out
wood now have permanent and sanitary camp grounds.
A garage, warehouse and cottage for the project manager at the' agency.
Telephone lines . Fifty-seven miles of them.
Boundary and drift fences . 190 miles - dividing cattle and sheep
range and spring and summer range.
Development of 75 springs .
Wells, windmills, troughs and storage tanks built .
One hundred and six miles of truck trail constructed or reconstructed.
Irrigation work , including the cleaning of fifteen miles of ditch
banks, installation of six checks on Little Indian and twelve head gates on
the Bannock Creek ditches.
The sowing of new grasses . This work, particularly, should prove of
great value in the future. Six thousand acres were sown with crested wheat
and sand grass and nine thousand pounds of yellow and white sweet clover were
widely sown on the Fort Hall Bottoms. These areas were not completely sown;
just sufficient seed was put out to establish mother plants.
Projects carried out under the Biological Survey have included the
taking of seven hundred coyotes, also 30,000 magpies, and the treating of
250,000 acres with poison grain for rodents. 50,000 acres have been treated
with poison and trapped for gophers.
Miscellaneous projects have included the treating of 100,000 acres
with areenite to combat Mormon crickets, 200 man-days expended fighting grass
and brush fires, 1400 man-days spent by line riders checking trespass and
crossing stock, the installation of four dams for the purpose of raising fish
on Fort Hall Bottoms, the planting of ten acres of hardwoods on Fort Hall Bot-
toms and the establishment of demonstration plots.
E. G. W . AT FORT HALL AGENCY, IDAHO
Crew Dusting Mormon Crickets With Sodium Arsenate
NEW STUDY OF NAVAJO SITUATION ISSUED
The National Association on Indian Affairs and the American Indian
Defense Association have issued, jointly, a 30-page bulletin, "The Navajos
and the Land." The text is by Moris Burge, Field Representative of the Na-
tional Association on Indian Affairs, with a foreword by Oliver La Farge ,
President of the Association. It is a clear and dispassionate appraisal of
the Navajo land problem and the government's part in its solution. The crit-
icisms are just; the figures quoted are accurate. The bulletin makes en-
A few quotations:
"For many reasons the Navajos are in the public eye. The largest
tribe of Indians in the United States of America, with a population of approx-
imately 45,000, they lead a colorful and primitive existence on vast stretches
of high desert and mountain in New Mexico and Arizona, ranging in altitude
from 5,000 to 10,000 feet. For a living they depend almost entirely on herds
of sheen and goats, agricultural products and a small income from weaving,
silversmithing and wages."
"Briefly, the Indian Service on the Navajo Reservation is farced with
the major problem of maintaining and improving the present economic state of
the Navajo nation, in spite of an increasing population and limited natural
resources. There is little hope of extending the present boundaries beyond
the proposed line in New Mexico, the land at present at the disposal of the
Navajos is extremely poor, water for farming and stock is scarce and uncer-
tain and the range has deteriorated through overgrazing and erosion. It is
a desperate situation, calling for the cooperation and help of everyone in-
terested in this virile and upstanding tribe."
Mr. Burge then gives a brief resume of the early extensions of the
reservation, its unplanned development and the growing recognition, during
the previous administration, of the need for drastic action, finally under-
taken during the present administration.
He cites the difficulties which faced the carrying out of a definite
program: the hostility of the larger Navajo stock owners, the general resent-
ment against stock reduction, the opposition of white interests. He emphasizes
the stringent need for stock reduction, never admitted by some outside critics.
"Actually," he says, "the reduction of live stock on the Navajo Reservation
has been entirely inadequate and the ranges are still seriously overstocked."
He criticizes early reduction methods: the use of a percentage basis in re-
duction as working hardship on the small owners and leaving the large owners
practically unscathed; and the subsequently blasted confidence that the New
Mexico Boundary Bill would be passed after stock reductions had been made.
"No one really informed on the administration of the Navajos dur-
ing the past four years will deny that there have been mistakes and confu-
sion. The change from the six agencies to the central administration plant
at Window Rock, the start of the Emergency Conservation Work, the introduc-
tion of the Soil Conservation Service and the start of the Day School Program,
all were marked with blunders, sometimes of a serious nature. Most of the
mistakes can be traced to the unavoidable haste with which these projects
were begun, due to the limited time in which the money had to be spent. Dur-
ing the first few months of the Emergency Conservation Work, when plans were
half-formed, authority divided and the reservation showered with people ful],
of new theories on Indian life, many serious observers believed that the
Navajos would have been better off if the money had never been spent. The
confusion caused by the first efforts to establish day schools caused serious
opposition from all sides rnd jeopardized the future of this important change
in the Navajo educational system."
The development of the present centralized administration and the
land management plan for the Navajos 'are discussed in some detail and in gener-
"The basic theory behind the new administrative plan, the centrali-
zation under one man of all policies affecting the Navajos with adequate
field staff to look to the needs of the Indians, and the control of all
branches of the Indian Service working with the Navajos, is unquestionably
sound, but it will take years of patient work before it is firmly established.
It is hard to change the customs of any peonle, Indians perhaps more than
whites, and the Navajos have regarded their local superintendent as their
contact with Washington and the government since Fort Defiance Agency was
first established in 1869.
"Under Superintendent Fryer, district supervisors have been amoointed
to the eighteen Land Management Areas (described on the next page), who will
work under the direction of the Central Agency. Although the duties of these
supervisors have been limited to land management matters, they will relieve
much of the pressure on the superintendent and fill the pressing need for men
with authority in the field. The limited areas that they will have to cover
will enable them to know conditions of both the Indians and the land in a way
that was impossible under the jurisdictional system. The policies for the
entire reservation will be determined at the Central Agency and put into effect
by these district supervisors who will be in direct contact with the Indians.
This system should eliminate not only the confusion of policies which has
existed in the oast, but also the tendency to neglect the Navajos in outlying
districts. We were interested in the tyne of men picked for these important
positions. We found without exception that they are practical men with experi-
ence in the field and a record of successful dealings with Indians.
"The present administration has "been accused of wiping out the
Navajos' source of life and bringing them to poverty and distress. In a few
cases mistaken zeal has caused hardships, but these are a few isolated ex-
"Policy on the Navajo Reservation affecting the economic life of
the Indians and their use of the land is guided almost entirely by the Land
Management Division of the Navajo Service."
"Members of the Soil Conservation and Indian Services concerned with
this problem in the Land Management Division of the Navajo Service, with
headquarters at Window Rock under Dr. W. G. McG-innies as director. The Divi-
sion jLs under the General Superintendent of the Navajos, and Dr. McGinnies is
also responsible to the Soil Conservation Service headquarters in Albuquerque.
All activities affecting the land are handled by this Division. The fusion
of the two Services and the establishment of the General Superintendent's
control have been important steps in the development of the Navajo administra-
tion and have eliminated one of the major sources of trouble during the past
"As a preliminary step in the tremendous task of compiling detailed
information on the Navajos' resources, the Land Management Division undertook
a general survey of the entire reservation. This was done through trained
technical men. Maps were compiled to show the necessary data and to have a
more accurate base map for this work an aerial survey was made covering
16,500,000 acres. When this step in the work was completed, the reservation
was divided into eighteen areas which were determined by natural boundaries
such as watersheds, mountain ranges, wide canyons and other physical barriers.
The use of the land by the Indians in the past and the grouping of the popula-
tion were also taken into consideration. An estimate of the population was
made through the Chapters, local organizations developed during the Rhoads
administration and the result was an approximate figure of 47,000.
"An intensive study of each of these areas is now being made which
when completed will give reliable, factual information on the economic life
of the Navajo, the possible development of his resources and the adjustments
that will be necessary if he is to continue to exist on the reservation. To
compile this information a field party will work for several months in each
area. This party includes men trained in the study of Agronomy, Sociology,
Forestry, Range Management, Irrigation and Engineering. A definite schedule
has been formulated by the heads of the Land Management Division which is to
be closely followed by the field party. This will not only eliminate irrele-
vant information, but also ensure a fairly consistent approach to the various
problems which will arise. It will also greatly simplify the organisation of
the material when it is complete."
Passage of the Boundary Bill is urged. The report concludes:
"Work on the reservation in the past has teen inconsistent and at
times harmful to both the Indian and his land. With the new administrative
organization and the material gathered by the Land Management Division, an
intelligent and comprehensive plan for the development of the Navajo Reser-
vation can be formulated. This plan will not be put into effect in a short
while, but will be the result of continuous and consistent work on the part
of the Indian Service and Indians for years to come. Plans will undoubtedly
be modified and changed as the work progresses but there will be a definite,
basic policy behind all work dealing with land ase and the economic life of
the Navajo. At the present time the government is spending vast sums of
money on the Navajo Reservation and it is impossible to contemplate an in-
definite continuation of this expenditure. The Navajos must gradually take
over the responsibility of using their land in an intelligent manner and
cease the present destruction of the very fibre of their economic existence. 11
The price of the bulletin is twenty-five cents. Copies may be
obtained from the central office of the National Association on Indian Af-
fairs at 120 East 57th Street, New York City, N. T.
THREAT TO SENECA LAND AVERTED
The grave peril to the Seneca Indians in New York threatened by the
proposed construction of a large flood-control dam on the Allegheny River
below Salamanca has been averted for the time being at least. That dam, if
built, would blot out forever, uractically all lands of any value for Indian
home sites or other domestic purposes within the Allegany Indian Reservation.
These lands constitute practically the last remnant of a princely domain,
once owned and occupied by the powerful Seneca Tribe, a component of the famed
Iroquois League which the white man shortly learned both to fear and respect
after landing on the shores of the American continent.
Naturally and most justly, the Indians are bitterly opposed to
yielding up to the insatiable desires for progress on the part of the white
man practically the last vista of possessions cherished from time immemorial
by a sturdy, independent, self-respecting people. Colonial history is replete
with the names of famous Seneca chiefs such as Red Jacket, Cornplanter and
Recent developments indicate that the damage from flood waters oc-
curring at Pittsburgh and elsewhere along the Allegheny River can successfully
be taken care of by construction of suitable check and impounding dams else-
where than shortly below Salamanca, resulting in the flooding of no lands be-
longing to the Indians. This will prove a happy solution to the Indian as
well as to the white man.
J. P. KINNEY OF I.E.C.W . STAFF WRITES HISTORY OF INDIAN LAND TENURE
By Allan G. Harper, Field Representative in Charge of Indian Organization
A CONTINENT LOST — A CIVILIZATION WON - By J. P. Kinney
The Johns Hopkins Press - Baltimore, 1937. $4.00
With infinite pains, Mr. J. P. Kinney has undertaken the enormous
task of spading over the mountainous mass of statutes, government reports,
treaties and other contemporary documents to put together a consecutive his-
tory of Indian land tenure from the earliest times to the present day. By
a generous use of pertinent extracts from these sources , he has largely al-
lowed the chief actors in the drama to unfold their own story. The net re-
sult is to add a very worth-while study to the literature on the Indian land
Fully half of the text is devoted to a consideration of the all-
important subject of land allotment. Mr. Kinney's research into the early
origins of the concept of individualizing Indian land holdings carries the
story into the more remote past than did the fine study of Mr. D. S. Otis,
made in 1934. We learn, for example, that its first expression goes back
as far as 1633 when the General Court (legislature) of Massachusetts invited
Indians to come to the English plantations, lead civil and orderly lives and
have "allotments amongst the English, according to the custom of the English
in like case." Mr. Kinney's book is also a more comprehensive treatment of
the development of the allotment policy in the first part of the nineteenth
century. As he shows exhaustively, there had been a very considerable experi-
mentation with land in severalty before it was universally applied to all In-
dian lands by the General Allotment Act of 1887.
One wishes that Mr. Kinney had analyzed these earlier experiments
with a more quantitative test of their success. In fact, they met with no
such success as to have warranted the enactment of the allotment law as the
foundation stone of the government's land policy. The complete story of
what happened to the land holdings of the tribes which were allotted before
1887 has yet to be written.
It must be remembered that the American Indian tribes, when first
brought into contact with European civilization, had not developed any con-
cepts of individual land ownership. They had no concept of individual in-
heritance of land. They had no concept of selling or conveying title to land.
There was an almost mystical attachment to the soil of their homeland. "The
sun is my father and the earth my mother," said Tecumseh to Harrison. That
allotment faltered and failed from the beginning comes as no surprise to those
who have comprehended the persistent influence of such hardy racial condition-
ings. This is not to say that land in severalty has never been successful;
nor that it will never he successful. But it is plain that the radical ex-
ponents of allotment have pursued, to the Indians' detriment, a doctrinaire
philosophy without taking these cultural factors into consideration. Not un-
til 1934, with the enactment of the Indian Reorganization Act, did the govern-
ment take cognizance of the almost unbroken record of failure and of the
shocking loss of land and social dislocation which allotment entailed.
In one sense, we never can have a complete and unbiased statement
of the Indian land question, around which most of Indian history has taken
place, because we never can have an unquestioned record of what the Indians
themselves thought and believed. The records we have to work with are the
white man's records and all we can do is to speculate on what was going on
in the Indians' minds. The Indians are in a like case to that of the South-
erner whose history was once almost wholly written by New Englanders. The
ledger of Indian-white relationships, the wrongs and good deeds of both,
have unfortunately been kept by one of the parties concerned.
None of these remarks is intended to detract from the able and
careful study which Mr. Kinney has produced. It should become a valuable
source of information and reference to all those who would understand pres-
ent-day problems related to Indian lands.
FATHER GAGNIEUR , WORKER FOR HA LF-CENTURY AMONG CHIPPEWAS . DIES
The Reverend Father William Francis Gagnieur, beloved Jesuit
priest, who worked among the Great Lakes Indians for some fifty years, died
in February at the age of seventy-nine.
He was not only a devoted priest and missionary but an accomplished
student of Indian languages which he has helped to record phonograph ically.
Part of his epitaph reads:
"This beloved Priest, dear to the northern Indian tribes and white
men and women alike who knew him, was the last of the long line of Jesuit
Priests in the St. Mary's River region of which Father James Marquette, who
came here in 1668, was the first."
FROM I.B.C.W. REPORTS
Varied Activities At^ Potawatomi
( Kansas ) Sac and Fox. Reservation :
A small crew of men has been working
on this reservation grubbing trees
to he set out around lakes. 214
trees - ash, elm, hackberry, mulber-
ry, oak, sumach, walnut - were grubbed
this week. Since the ground is still
frozen, it is a little difficult to
grub the trees.
Kickapoo Reservation : Two crews
have been digging on wells this week
on this reservation and a third crew
has been quarrying rock to be used
in walling the wells. Two men worked
at building a fence around one of the
dams in preparation for planting
trees around the lake.
Potawatomi Reservation : Two
crews are digging on wells on the
Potawatomi Reservation this week.
Two crews are working at quarrying
rock to be used for walling of wells
and construction of masonry check
dams. Three crews have been plant-
ing trees around dams. The men work-
ing on tree planting set out 540 trees,
dug 2,708 holes for setting out of
trees and dug up 510 trees to be set
out. P. Everett Suerry .
Drainage Work At Salem Indian
School ( Oregon ) The work on this
project was somewhat retarded be-
cause we ran into a mixture of clay
and beaver-dam soil. We believe that
this project is teaching the Siletz
and Grand Ronde Indians the fundamen-
tals of soil conservation by actual
experience which they probably would
not fully grasp by reading. They see
the value of underground drainage in
preventing the top-soil erosion.
L. Shawver, Dairyman .
Progress At Coeur d'Alene
( Idaho ) The cruising and mapping
has been moving along at a pretty
good pace this week. The snow is
rapidly leaving the north slopes so
that it is much easier to get around.
Pretty soon we shall start to trace
some of the map sheets. There is
not a very large labor turnover on
the timber reconnaisance crew as
they seem to like the work. Harold '
Wing , Project Manager .
Camp Ground Development At Rose -
bud ( South DakotaT~Spotted Tail Park
Project : This group of men have
cleared all the brush from the park
area this week; they have dismantled
an old fence and picked up all the
barbed wire. The men are engaged
under close supervision in the thin-
ning of the trees so that parts of
the park will be made accessible to
the public. The trees being cut
are to be used for fencing the -nark
area. Ralnh 0. Aonerson , Principle
Night School Program Completed
At Turtle Mountain ( North Dakota )
The Night School Program was com-
pleted last Thursday. Representa-
tive articles that were completed
were placed on display in the audi-
torium on this night. In this way,
outsiders can inspect the work and
see what has been done. The enter-
tainment for that evening consisted
of some form of musical act or
dialogue from each class. After
the entertainment lunch was served
and the evening was completed with
card-playing. Also at this time
certificates were issued to each
student, thereby certifying that he
had attended the classes regularly
and for his efforts, was made this
award. Donald Flahart, Junior En-
Repair And Maintenance Work At
Uintah & Ouray ( Utah ) Our seventy
"Cat" has just "been completed with
an overhauling job. Ernest Holmes,
our head mechanic, spent three days
here in camp on account of bad roads.
He remained here to be close to his
work. With the help of some of our
camp boys, Mr. Holmes was able to
put the "Cat" back in first-class
running order. Our bulldozer will
also be overhauled, which will put
our heavy trail machinery in shape
for our spring work.
Some maintenance work was done
on our trails this past week. Drain
ditches were cut across the trails
to keep from washing deep ruts and
causing washouts in places.
Roy Langley with two of our boys
have spent two days trying to locate
cornerstones. Deep snow has made it
quite difficult to locate some of
these cornerstones. Pence building
will start from this camp as soon
as the weather permits.
Our amusement hall which col-
lapsed due to heavy snowstorms, is
well under way. We expected to have
this building up by the 15th of this
month but delay on the shipment of
lumber put us back a few days. We
expect to have this building up in a
short time. Carnes La Rose.
Community Meeting At Kiowa ( Okla -
homa ) Two check dams were completed
this week and two other check dams were
The third community meeting was
held last night at Mountain View,
Oklahoma. There were about three hun-
dred people out to see the program.
Everybody sure did enjoy the program.
We want to thank each and every-
one who made it possible for our In-
dians to work during the cold winter
months . We hope we can be put back
to work soon. Robert Goombi.
Drainage Work At New York ( New
York ) The snowstorm on Wednesday
somewhat retarded our work but on
Thursday, conditions improved so work
continued at a normal pace. A slight
thaw caused the water to seep into the
ditch, but not enough to interfere
with the work. We expect to get to
the high point in about ten days. The
ditch in this section, when completed,
will drain many acres of land which
hitherto were mostly under water for
the most part of the spring season.
Joseph F. Tachell .
Tree Planting At Taholah ( Wash -
ington ) Project No. 58 is practically
completed for this time; having
planted 83,000 spruce and 10,200
douglas fir of the nursery stock;
5,300 spruce of the wild stock were
also planted. There are approximate-
ly 375 acres planted of the 500 acres
originally planned to plant for this
Project No. 54 consisted of
cleaning out slides and ditches and
patching frost damage.
Project No. 55 consisted of re-
pairing and brushing out foot trails.
Project No. 5 2 consisted of set-
ting building on foundation.
Project No. 57 , Operation of
Nursery, consisted of routine work in
the nursery. Paul Brodersen .
Indians Pleased With I.E.C.W .
At Pipestone Schoo l ( Minnesota ) The
Pipestone Sioux Indians have had
very favorable weather for their
work during the past week. The In-
dians in this community are well-
pleased and thankful to have work on
I.E.C.W. at this time as there is no
other work available. We have experi-
enced a very severe winter and if it
were not for I.E.C.W." our Indians in
this community would have suffered
greatly. J. M. Balmer - Superintend -
Hazard Reduction At Sisseton
( South Dakota ) Work on our Kazard
Seduction Project was resumed on
March 15th after a period of inac-
tivity of over a week due to the fact
that funds allotted to that project
had been expended . Authority was
granted from the "Washington Office to
continue with this project as it was
the only one going at the Agency at
A new crew was organised and
more work has been accomplished this
week than any previous week that we
worked on this project. It is hoped
to get most of the dead wood disposed
of before the spring thaws began and
destroy what is left of it. P. Nico-
Favorable Weather Conditions At
Yakima ( Washington ) Weather condi-
tions have been exceptionally fine
this week, with generally overcast
skies, but no rain. The trails here
in the lowlands are dry and in good
condition, so that the work on the
graveling project from Mill Creek to
Olney Creek has run along very nicely.
The ga.soline shovel has proven itself
The garage and repair shop is
busy overhauling trucks and tractors
and is putting them in first-class
condition for the coming season.
A. W^ Mitchell .
Protection Of Wild Life At Flat -
head ( Montana ) Work was continued
in the area north of the Big Draw.
There is much game wintering in this
area. The coyotes are numerous and
are killing some deer. Crusted snow
allows the coyotes to walk on the
top while deer being chased by the
coyotes break through and have hard
going in twenty inches of snow.
Harold P. Smith .
Truck Trail Work At Hoona Valley
( California ) Work has been progress-
ing rapidly on all projects during
the week. The Cletrac Bulldozer
put in a full week on the Bloody
Camp Truck Trail and made a good show-
ing. The right-of-way crew is now
in heavy timber and doing considerable
The crew working on the Subsist-
ence Garden Project at Johnson Vil-
lage completed 1500 feet of ditch
and cleared 1.2 acres of right-of-way,
making the project 15$ completed as
of March 13. The heavy timber and
rough terrain on this project have
slowed up the project somewhat but
the men and people living at Johnson
are grea.tly interested in this prog-
ress to date and the men deserve
much credit for their showing.
Patrick _!• Rogers, Assistant Clerk.
SMrTHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES
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